1. Witnesses who have been duly summoned shall obey the summons and attend the oral hearing.
2. Without prejudice to paragraph 3, if a witness who has been duly summoned fails to appear before the Court or refuses to give evidence or to make the declaration referred to in Rule 178.1,  the Court may impose upon him a pecuniary sanction not exceeding EUR 50.000 and may order that a further summons be served at the witness’s own expense.
3. Nobody shall be obliged to sign a written witness statement or to give evidence at an oral hearing if he is a spouse, partner equal to a spouse under applicable national law, descendant, sibling or parent of a party. A witness may also refuse to answer questions if answering them would violate a professional privilege or other duty of confidentia
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1. After the identity of the witness has been established and before hearing his evidence, the presiding judge shall ask the witness to make the following declaration:
"I solemnly, sincerely and truly declare and affirm that the evidence I shall give shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth."